When designing, developing, implementing and evaluating Service Leadership curriculum and co-curricular activities, HKI-SLAM encourages Principle Investigators (PIs) and educators to consider the following principles and guidelines.

  • Service leadership education has its distinguishing characteristics and should not be confused with service learning or the development of leadership through service learning[19].
  • Service leadership curriculum should be developed, practiced and evaluated by scholar-practitioners who favor a social-cognitive approach to motivation[20]. The social-cognitive approach to motivation is based on the hypothesis that human attributes such as intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence; personality and character traits; values, and attitudes are malleable and developable[21]. If not fully embracing all aspects of this hypothesis, principal investigators should at least ascribe to the general idea that motivation to improve these attributes is enhanced when a learner believes the attributes are malleable and can be developed by purposeful personal effort. 
  • Service leadership curriculum should be designed, developed, practiced, assessed, and evaluated by scholar-practitioners who have a working knowledge of research on the power of Developmental Assets[22-23] and Transformative Learning Theory[7, 24-26] to improve service leadership competencies, personal wellbeing, and quality of life. 
  • Service Leadership educators should use evidence-based educational theories and practices such as outcomes-based education[27], experiential learning, cooperative learning[28], project-based learning[30], and service learning (but see Ko[19]) to support and enhance Service Leadership education.
  • Service Leadership education should include leadership and service science case studies, leaders’ stories, and personal narratives of students.
  • Service Leadership curriculum should be designed so that intended learning outcomes, curriculum content, learning activities, and assessment are clearly aligned so that achievement of outcomes can be easily measured and verified. 
  • Evaluation rubrics should be carefully developed for all learning activities and assessments. Students should be allowed to help develop rubrics and be given a copy of assessment rubrics before beginning a learning activity.
  • During theperiod of instruction and learning,SLAM scholar-practitioners and learners should collaboratively use action research[31] (reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action) and othercredible research methods to perform ongoing formative assessment, evaluate progress, and devise ways to improve learning.
  • Service Leadership and management curriculum should be holistic, multi-disciplinary and distributed.



Taylor, E.W., (2008). Transformative Learning Theory. In S. B. Merriam (Ed.) An Update of Adult Learning (p. 5). New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, No. 119. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Ko, Edmond, (2011). “Service Leadership and Service Learning,” Unpublished paper.


Dweck, C.S. and Leggett, E.L. (1988). “A Social-Cognitive Approach to Motivation and Personality.” Psychological Review, Vol. 95, No. 2, 256-273.


Dweck, C.S.; Chi-yue Chiu; and Ying-yi Hong (1995). “Implicit Theories and Their Role in Judgments and Reactions: A World from Two Perspective.” Psychological Inquiry, Vol. 6, No. 4, 267-285.


Search Institute. Accessed 110831


Mezirow, J. and Associates, (2000). Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress.Jossey-Bass.


Each educator’s favorite books and articles about outcomes-based education.


Each educator’s favorite books and articles about experiential learning.


Each educator’s favorite books and articles about cooperative learning.


Each educator’s favorite books and articles about project-based learning.


Schon, D.A., (1995). “The New Scholarship Requires a New Epistemology.” Change, Vol. 27, No. 6., Nov-Dec.