Essential Knowledge Strands (EKSs) identify key SLAM facts, concepts, and ways of thinking that learners must be able to understand, retain, recall, and apply.

Each EKS is aligned with one or more specific SLAM Core Beliefs (CB 1-7)

Essential Knowledge Strands:
EKS1: Leadership is a service that ethically satisfies a wide range of individual, group, community, system and environmental needs (CB1).
EKS2: Everyone, everyday, practices leadership in multiple situations and contexts (CB2).
EKS3: Learning and habituating leadership competencies, which include character strengths and a caring disposition, can enhance one’s leadership effectiveness (CB3).
EKS4: Historical approaches to leadership and leadership theories and research[9] confirm the importance of positive social relationships to leadership effectiveness (CB3).
EKS5: Historical approaches to service and service theories and research recognize the importance of positive social relationships and context to evaluations about the quality of a service transaction[32] (CB3-5).
EKS6: Self-serving efforts aimed at improving one’s competencies, abilities, and willingness to help satisfy the needs of others is moral and just (CB4).
EKS7: Service leadership is about creating new personal service propositions and consistently providing high-quality personal service to everyone one comes into contact with, including one’s self (CB5).
EKS8: Service leadership is about leading by education, trust, respect, and inspiration, rather than by issuing orders, mandating specific actions, or punishing mistakes (CB5).
EKS9: Service leadership is about promoting and inspiring competitive advantage by the use of smartness, EQ[33], SQ[34], and inspiration rather than by only smartness and hard power (CB1-5).
EKS10: Service Leadership and Management (SLAM) are about designing and managing social relationships and service habitats. SLAM is not about designing factories or managing production operations or technology(CB1-6).
EKS11: Theories and research from the social sciences and neurosciences can increase awareness and understanding about how implicit social cognition might automatically influence decision-making and judgments about leadership quality and service satisfaction (CB6). 
EKS12: Positive judgments about leadership quality and effectiveness and service satisfaction are influenced significantly by whether or not a leader or service provider violates moral intuitions or social norms (CB1-6).
EKS13: As a nation develops economically, there is typically an increase in the amount that service(s) contribute to its gross domestic product and a decrease in the amount that manufacturing contributes (CB7).
EKS14: Service economies and communities like Hong Kong require a large pool of certified service leaders and managers with specific domain knowledge, skills, character, and care to fill high-paying, high-status career positions (CB7).

Click here to view SLAM Essential Skills Strands (ESSs) >
Click here to view SLAM Essential Values and Attitude Strands (EVSs) >



Chung, Po-Yang (2004). Adapted from a keynote speech, “Pay Your People Twice without it Costing You More.” The Young Entrepreneur’s Organization, Hong Kong.


Center for Service Leadership, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University. Accessed 120222.


Goleman, D., ().  Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. Bantam.


Goleman, D., (2007). Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships.Bantam